Saturday, March 29, 2008

Second Opinion

I have reproduced hereinbelow former Chief Justice Panganiban’s take on Neri vs. Senate Committees which I find mouthful and relevant.

With Due Respect
Arroyo Supreme Court?
By Artemio V. Panganiban
Philippine Daily Inquirer
Posted 03:12:00 03/30/2008

In the olden days, kings and queens ruled their domains absolutely according to their wiles and whims. They were not bound by pre-agreed rules to guide their actions. They simply imposed their wicked ways on the hapless people.

Constitutional democracy. As time went by, absolute rulers were deposed and new ones democratically selected. The chosen took the place of the kings but their powers were severely limited by constitutions and laws crafted by elected representatives. The rule of law prevailed when the chosen leader ran the country pursuant to the constitution and statutes, no longer by unpredictable wiles and whims.

In our country, the elected ruler who took the place of the king is the president. As in all constitutional democracies, not all the kingly powers are vested on the President. The authority to make laws is with Congress. The Supreme Court reviews executive acts to assure the reign of the rule of law. To further restrict the kingly prerogatives, the Constitution has created several other agencies like the Commission on Elections, the Commission on Audit, and the Ombudsman.

At present, President Macapagal-Arroyo, by her lonesome, commands the armed forces and the police. She spends more than 95 percent of the national budget, controls more than 95 percent of all national employees and supervises all provinces, cities, towns and barangays. Although the Supreme Court, Comelec, COA, and OMB are designed to be independent, the President appoints all their members.
Awesome powers. Indeed, the powers of the president are awesome. She could run the country by herself, without need of the Supreme Court, Congress, Comelec, etc., as ably demonstrated by Ferdinand Marcos. In fact, a repressive and corrupt president could use his or her prerogatives to subdue these agencies and thus enable him or her to rule the nation like the monarchs of old.

This is why the vitality of our democracy is dependent on the courage and competence of these agencies and their members to review and check presidential actions. This is also why there is unease, if not teeth-gnashing, when these agencies, especially the Supreme Court, unreasonably expand executive prerogatives, or inexplicably fail to check abuses.

“Neri vs Senate Committee on Accountability,” promulgated last March 25, is a case in point. I have read the 35-page ponencia of Justice Teresita Leonardo de Castro plus the concurrences of Justices Renato C. Corona (21 pages), Dante O. Tinga (14 pages), Presbitero J. Velasco Jr. (nine pages), Antonio Eduardo B. Nachura (15 pages) and Arturo D. Brion (nine pages), as well as the stirring dissents of Chief Justice Reynato S. Puno (120 pages), Consuelo Ynares-Santiago (seven pages), Antonio T. Carpio (36 pages), and Conchita Carpio Morales (31 pages).

With due respect, I believe that the majority decision failed to check presidential abuse; worse, it imprudently expanded executive privilege to cover wrongdoings.

First, to justify Secretary Romulo Neri’s refusal to answer the three questions linking President Arroyo to the ZTE-NBN mess, the majority considered “conversations that take place in the President’s performance of (her) official duties… presumptively privileged.” It deemed the bare, proof-less claim of Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita that Neri’s disclosures “might impair our diplomatic as well as economic relations” with China. It faulted the Senate with rank failure to explain a “critical or compelling need for the answers.”

By shifting the burden of proof to the Senate, the nine-member majority reversed the much-acclaimed “Senate vs Ermita,” issued just two years ago, that unanimously placed the duty of proving the need for secrecy on the president. Disclosure is the rule because the Constitution expressly mandates transparency and accountability for all officials.

Second, by giving the “presidential communications privilege” presumptive confidentiality, the majority inexplicably expanded kingly prerogatives. It unreasonably suppressed the truth.

Third, executive privilege is not expressly provided in the Constitution. There is no sentence or clause mentioning the privilege directly. The Supreme Court merely implied it from other presidential powers. In contrast, the power to investigate in aid of legislation is expressly granted by the Constitution to Congress. In a clash between these two prerogatives, the choice is clearly in favor of the express grant.

Fourth, the majority agreed with the Senate that executive privilege should not be used to hide a crime or wrongdoing. Well and good. Yet, it still ruled against disclosure on the convoluted argument that “US vs Nixon” involved a “pending criminal action,” while the Neri petition related to a “legislative inquiry.” As I see it, this American case is simply inapplicable. The majority should have relied on the constitutional mandate requiring transparency and accountability of officials. Its decision would have been a great landmark.

An epochal Supreme Court is endearingly named after its chief, like the Davide Court or the Teehankee Court. However, when it unduly legitimizes kingly excesses, it is derisively named after the president it serves, like the Marcos Supreme Court. As a retired chief justice, I would like to believe that the Neri decision is a mere aberration and would not suffice to label the present tribunal as the Arroyo Supreme Court. But then, it must quickly choose what it wants to do. Is it to serve or to check President Arroyo?

2007 Bar Exams

The agony of waiting is over. A total of 1,289 have passed the 2007 bar examinations out of 5,626 law graduates from 109 law schools. Under the Rules of Court, a bar examinee is deemed to have passed if he obtains a general average of 75 percent in all subjects without falling below 50 percent in any subject. The subjects and their corresponding weights are as follows: Remedial Law, 20 percent; Political and International Law, 15 percent; Mercantile Law, 15 percent; Civil Law, 15 percent; Labor and Social Legislation, 10 percent; Taxation, 10 percent; Criminal Law, 10 percent; and Legal Ethics and Practical Exercises, 5 percent.

List of Bar Passers

1. ABALUS, Karen Anne M.
3. ABARQUEZ, Carlo E.
4. ABDULLAH, Princess Shanihar A.
5. ABELLA, Johanna R.
6. ABISO, Meriame Joy D.
7. ABLOLA, Maricez J.
8. ABUNDABAR, Rhys Michael S.
9. ACEDILLO, Noelle T.
10. ACENA, Anna Cecilia D.
11. ACERET, Shantel P.
12. ACERO, Francis Euston R.
13. ACHARON, Paolo Jay S.
14. ACHAS, Anne Lourdes R.
15. ACLAN, Jennie C.
16. ACOSTA, JR., Isagani S.
17. ADIN, Fatima Irene T.
18. ADIOVA, Agnes Z.
19. ADLAO, Joyce P.
20. ADRIOSULA, Dino M.
21. AFRICA, Cecille Marie A.
22. AGAMATA, Abraham A.
23. AGDA, JR., Victoriano T.
24. AGONCILLO, Gildu R.
25. AGOR, Cesar A.
26. AGPAOA, Magnum D.
27. AGTARAP, Jeffrey M.
28. AGUAVIVA, Ma. Aileen G.
29. AGULAY, JR., Norberto S.
30. AGUNOS, Farah C.
31. AGUSTIN, Oliver P.
32. AGUSTIN, Ronesito B.
33. AKILITH, Joseph A.
35. ALAGABAN, Cherilee B.
36. ALAPOT, Jeofrey R.
37. ALAYON, Marivic M.
38. ALBAO, Ismael A.
39. ALBAYTAR, Mylene C.
40. ALCASABAS, Ramon Manolo A.
41. ALDOVINO, Farah A.
42. ALEJANDRE, Maria Zenaida F.
43. ALEJANDRO, Elsie A.
44. ALFONSO, Maria Kathrina C.
45. ALFONSO, Ramon M.
46. ALILING, Jose Percival Z.
47. ALIMA, Joel A.
48. ALINAO, Michael A.
49. ALINAS, Milber G.
50. ALINOG, Joanah C.
51. ALIPAO, Ligaya G.
52. ALIPUDDIN, Jamecia S.
53. ALIÑO, Dennis C.
54. ALMAZORA, Madelyn Joy S.
55. ALMEDA, John Voltaire A.
56. ALMODAL, Jezebel L.
57. ALOJADO, Rommero O.
58. ALONG, Angela Sigrid J.
59. ALONTE, Ruby Christine C.
60. ALONTO, II, Abdul Gaffur Madki M.
61. ALONZO, Angelita B.
62. ALTAMIA, Eden M.
63. ALVAERA, Joseph Vincent B.
64. ALVAREZ, Ethel L.
65. ALVAREZ, Katrina Anne F.
66. ALVAREZ, Mercedes K.
67. ALVIAR, Myrvilen L.
68. AMADA, Aileen E.
69. AMATONG, Aldren Raye A.
70. AMBATALI, Marian Kristine V.
71. AMOLATA, Apple Cherrie S.
72. AMPARO, Maria Lourdes G.
73. AMPON, Dennis R.
74. ANARNA, Jinky Y.
75. ANCHETA, Ari N.
76. ANDAYOG, Michael S.
77. ANG, Alli T.
78. ANGEL, Joseph Angelo D.
79. ANGELES, Anna Asuncion P.
80. ANGELES, Ela DV.
81. ANGUSTIA, Joseph Domingo M.
82. ANICETE, Alexander Philip C.
83. ANILLO-JACINTO, Ma. Cristina P.
84. ANONGOS, Juliana N.
85. ANTONANO, Essy Genebelle B.
86. ANTONIO, Dan David Vincent D.
87. ANTONIO, Giovanni J.
88. ANTONIO, Michelle M.
89. ANTONIO, Rowena A.
90. APOLINARIO, Anissa P.
91. APOLINARIO, Odilon A.
92. APOLONIO, Katherine G.
93. APOLONIO, III, Alfonso A.
94. APOSTOL, JR., Manolito M.
95. APRUEBO, Violet M.
96. AQUINO, Aristotle R.
97. AQUINO, Loly C.
98. AQUINO, Ma. Carina A.
99. AQUINO, Mary Ann Gretchen U.
100. AQUINO, Noe T.
101. AQUINO-BUÑO, Mimi L.
102. ARBUES, Christian M.
103. ARCEGA, Cesar Arnel M.
104. ARCENAS, Ernie B.
105. ARCHIVAL, Al John M.
106. ARCOS, Dante L.
107. ARDAÑA, Benju V.
108. ARENAS, Maria Diana S.
109. AREVALO, Edgard A.
110. ARIMBOYUTAN, JR., William D.
111. ARIOLA, Rendey D.
112. ARITAO, Benjamin Lawrence P E.
113. ARRIOLA, Roy J.
114. ARSITIO, Robin R.
115. ARUGAY, Roman C.
116. ASCALON, Maki-angel O.
117. ASENCIO, Valentina J.
118. ASENCION, Lincoln R.
119. ASERIT, Ma. Girlie B.
120. ASETRE, Ivy V.
121. ASINAS, Neilster Jon S.
122. ASPA, Franz Raymond P.
123. ASTIH, Pakhruddin M.
124. AURELLANA, Rinchel E.
125. AUSTRIA, Norman B.
126. AVANCE, Candy T.
127. AYSON, JR., Ruben S.
128. BACAL, Noel G.
129. BACALLA, Noel O.
130. BACELONIA, Joy Anne V.
131. BACONGA, Saturnino N.
132. BACORRO, Lianne M.
133. BADIOLA, Alan V.
134. BAGALOYOS, Anne Jamaica E.
135. BAGUIO, Mario P.
136. BAJA, Mariel D.
137. BAKINO, Suseyline M.
138. BALA, Jerwin D.
139. BALANAY, Ruena D.
140. BALAO-AS, John B.
141. BALAOING, Emman B.
142. BALBA, Jennifer M.
143. BALBANERO, Michael A.
144. BALDO, Ma. Aimee E.
145. BALDONADO, Neil Energyte G.
146. BALDOS, Catherine A.
147. BALEIN, Mignonette Emelaine Gail D.
148. BALO, Ted Andrew M.
149. BALOT, Dexter M.
150. BALTAO, Kimberly May F.
151. BALUYOT, Rosario R.
152. BAMBO, Ulysses G.
153. BANAUAG, Boris Maria T.
154. BANAWA, Frayn M.
155. BANAYBANAY, Clarissa Idris G.
156. BANTILAN, JR., Paterno T.
157. BAQUILOD, Clara A.
158. BARCELLANO, JR., Julio D.
159. BARRIOS, Karla Maria F.
160. BARRIOS, Manuel Isidro Rosauro V.
161. BARROSO, Rachel Rueve Marie T.
162. BARSAGA, JR., Nilo P.
163. BARTOLOME, Sheryl G.
164. BARUT, Maribel L.
165. BASALLAJE, Eva Bernardette V.
166. BASAS, Joseph Melvin B.
167. BASCO, Neil Sam L.
168. BASCO, Reynante B.
169. BASQUIÑEZ, Flora Sherry M.
170. BASTASA, Michellee C.
171. BATAY, Rosalyn D.
172. BATICULON, Blanchie T.
174. BAUTISTA, Antonio Carlos B.
175. BAUTISTA, Irvin A.
176. BAUTISTA, Jackie Lou C.
177. BAUTISTA, Maria Teresa I.
178. BAUTISTA, Patricia Lee Alexandra M.
179. BAYLON, Melvin P.
180. BAYOT, Rocherrie S.
181. BEJER, Louise Dianne A.
182. BEJOC-CARANDANG, Florence G.
183. BELORIA, JR., Cesar B.
184. BELTRAN, Leonard M.
185. BELZA, Mary Angieline L.
186. BEN, Noel A.
187. BENITEZ, Ferdinand S.
188. BENITEZ, Victor Esteban S.
189. BENTULAN, Jeremias A.
190. BERMUDEZ, Ronaldo O.
191. BERNADES, Dexter Niño E.
192. BERNADOS, Cresente C.
193. BERNAL, June Ann Q.
194. BERNAL, Rj A.
195. BERNAL, Victor Marc B.
196. BERNARDO, Rommel M.
197. BILLONES-IBARDOLAZA, Maria Genalyn T.
198. BILOCURA, Nathaniel B.
199. BINALAY, Maria Florinia B.
200. BINAYAN, Darcy M.
201. BITARA, Francis Rael C.
202. BLANCO, Mark Philip B.
203. BLANQUISCO, Sherryl R.
204. BLANZA, Randy B.
205. BOADO, Armi-lynn Kristine H.
206. BOCAR, Vida Zora G.
207. BOCO, Jimmy B.
208. BOJOS, Anna Fionah L.
209. BOLIVAR, Amy Grace O.
210. BOLIVAR-AMONCIO, Anna Marie Josette A.
211. BOLLIDO, Ma. Corazon P.
212. BOMBASE, Paulo N.
213. BONGAT, Joanna S.
214. BONIFACIO, Marie Eugenie Grace M.
215. BONSOL, Mary Grace S.
216. BONTIGAO-BAGUE, Maria Estela H.
217. BORBON, Alyssa Benetta L.
218. BORGONIA, John Ismael B.
219. BORJA, Karl Frederick S.
220. BORJA, Ruel P.
221. BOTIGAN, Maria Cristina C.
222. BRAGADO, Marijoy B.
223. BRAGAS, Diane Karen B.
224. BRILLANTES, Love Joy Cecilia C.
225. BRIONES, Joyce M.
226. BRIONES, Leo Santiago M.
227. BRITANICO, Francesco C.
228. BRITO, Edita
229. BUENAVISTA, Ryan S.
230. BUENCAMINO, Christine Marie V.
231. BUENDIA, Terence P.
232. BUENVIAJE, Ernest Ian S.
233. BUGAYONG, Allan Rheynier D.
234. BULATAO, Sheryl Grace G.
235. BULONG, JR., Joaquin N.
236. BULSECO, Cheslyn Claire C.
237. BULSECO, III, Francisco S.
238. BURGOS, Jo Ann M.
239. BUSLAYAN, JR., Romeo F.
240. BUSTOS, Janina Lourdes S.
241. BUZETA-ACERO, Andre Ria B.
242. CABAILO-ALDEA, Ethelwolda A.
243. CABALHUG, JR., Antonio J.
244. CABANLAS, Dick Carlo J.
245. CABANTOG, Amylaine R.
246. CABARABAN, Maria Cielo Shanidar C.
247. CABEL, Karla T.
248. CABILES, Jo Aileen A.
249. CABRAL, III, Ricardo Felix C.
250. CABUHAT, Mary Ellen S.
251. CACABELOS, Karren Maricris G.
252. CACERES, Rowena C.
253. CADIZ, Manuel Cesar Reno S.
254. CALAYAN, Deanna Maria Rachel S.
255. CALINGIN, Carlomagno N.
256. CALIPES, Bhavelyn S.
257. CALIZO, Brian M.
258. CALLANTA, Eduardo G.
259. CALSEÑA, Mariedith B.
260. CALSIYAO, JR., Ceferino B.
261. CALUMBA, Edelene Grace S.
262. CAMANGEG, Cristel Marie G.
263. CAMELON, III, Renato M.
264. CAMORA, Gloria A.
265. CAMPOS, JR., Napoleon P.
266. CAMPOSANO, Catherine A.
267. CAMUA, Roger Terence P.
268. CANCEKO, Eileen Joy P.
269. CANONIGO-GAN, Catherine C.
270. CANSINO, III, Emilio P.
271. CANTAROS, JR., Rufino C.
272. CANULLAS, Karen S.
273. CAOAYAN, Wenceslao R.
274. CAPACITE-BALLAIS, Gissle Gay A.
275. CARANTES, John Carlo E.
276. CARIÑO, Maria Elena E.
277. CARLOTA, JR., Mariano P.
278. CARPINA, Iris M.
279. CARPIO, Benedicto R.
280. CARREON, III, Cesar R.
281. CARTAGENA, Benedict S.
282. CARUNGCONG, Jonathan R.
283. CASABAR, Alezandro S.
284. CASANGKAPAN, Antonio C.
285. CASEÑAS, Ma. Goretti V.
286. CASIMIRO, Orlando Paolo F.
287. CASTAÑEDA, Kristina P.
288. CASTAÑOS, Chester C.
289. CASTIGADOR, Alex C.
290. CASTILLO, Eilyn Beverly Bless L.
291. CASTILLO, Jocelyn Perolina
292. CASTILLO, Marlon William M.
293. CASTILLO-LORENZO, Cesaria Dane D.
294. CASTRO, Fernand A.
295. CASTRO, Jesselito L.
296. CASTRO, Rainela D.
297. CAUDANG, Hashreen T.
298. CAVADA, Glenn M.
299. CAVISTANY, Debbie Liezl B.
300. CAYABYAB, Pamela Ann T.
301. CAYBOT, Cristina V.
302. CAÑAS, Reginildo R.
303. CELINO, Sarah Eufrosina D.
304. CENABRE, Ethan Allen F.
305. CEQUENA, Levie Lyn C.
306. CERILLO, Maria Theresa A.
307. CERVANTES, Paul Christian M.
309. CHAN, Jordanne B.
310. CHAVEZ, Marvin Gregory R.
311. CHAVEZ, III, Cesar Angelo A.
312. CHENG, Charles Edward M.
313. CHING, Ronald Segundino C.
314. CHING, III, Benito S.
315. CHIONG, Naomi C.
316. CHIU, Karol Joseph P.
317. CHU, Emilio C.
318. CLAMOR, Antonette P.
319. CLARA, Barbra Jill B.
320. CLARAVALL, VI, Francisco M.
321. CO, Evangeline M.
322. CO, Karl Steven A.
323. CO, Rosalyn S.
324. CO, Ryan D.
325. CODA-MAMUKID, Monalisa B.
326. COLET, Juan Paolo E.
327. COLICO, Cristina T.
328. COMPETENTE, Joenel R.
329. CONALES, Christie Anne S.
331. CONCHA, Diana Charlette G.
332. CONCHA, Susan Espera L.
333. CONCHA, Val Angelo C.
334. CONSTANTINO, Pillar L.
335. COPAHAN, Levie U.
336. CORCEGA, Mediner M.
337. CORDERO, Felicito C.
338. CORDIA, Marthe Lois V.
339. CORONEL, Anna Karina A.
340. CORONEL, Jeffrey Jefferson Y.
341. CORPUZ, Emmanuel Rico C.
342. CORRAL, Claire B.
343. CORRO, Andrew C.
344. CORTES, Lee Owen P.
345. CORTEZ, Vida A.
346. CORTEZANO, Marwin M.
347. COSTALES, Leslie D.
348. CRISOSTOMO, Jeremiah N.
349. CRISTOBAL, Laurrie Layne P.
350. CRUZ, Anna Liza R.
351. CRUZ, Celeste Marie R.
352. CRUZ, Consuelo L.
353. CRUZ, Din-din A.
354. CRUZ, Elbert S.
355. CRUZ, Francis Joseph A.
356. CRUZ, Guia Perpetua C.
357. CRUZ, Jaymark SJ.
358. CRUZ-ABRENICA, Ma. Sophia Editha C.
359. CU, Robespierre S.
360. CUADRAS, Christian Arfel B.
361. CUBERO, Ela Michelle S.
362. CUDAL, Efren S.
363. CUNANAN, Rowena S.
364. CUPIDA, Febie A.
365. CURA, Amando M.
366. CURAMENG, Mary Ann T.
367. CURVA, Peter Marcu G.
368. DADULLA, Marites D.
369. DAGANTA, Shirley R.
370. DALIVA, Kristina Marie D.
371. DAMASCO, Alvy B.
372. DAMONDAMON, Mark Michael G.
373. DANCEL, Rojie G.
374. DAOAS, Pio Windale A.
375. DAPANAS, Lex Michelle M.
376. DAPON, JR., Loreto J.
377. DAPUL, Rhodalyne E.
378. DASING, Perlita DP.
379. DATUDACULA, Jamil D.
380. DATUDACULA, Normina M.
381. DAUZ, Roselea M.
382. DAVID, J. Krisley C.
383. DAYANDAYAN, Milreysa S.
384. DAYANDAYAN, JR., Remegio C.
385. DAYRIT, Chelin Y.
386. DAYRIT, Decruso P.
387. DE ANGEL, Jerlyn D.
388. DE AUSTRIA, Blisselda G.
389. DE CLARO, Christine Joanne F.
390. DE GUIA, Anne Mhiren Claudine D.
391. DE GUZMAN, Carmela Joy R.
392. DE GUZMAN, Ederlita V.
393. DE GUZMAN, Jay B.
394. DE GUZMAN, Soraida A.
395. DE GUZMAN, Vera M.
396. DE GUZMAN, JR., Glenn Ceasar T.
397. DE JESUS, Precy C.
398. DE JESUS, Remedios V.
399. DE JESUS, Roman Miguel G.
400. DE LA PAZ, Luis Gregorio Jesus B.
401. DE LA TORRE, Mailene M.
402. DE LARA, Elizabeth Alexandra Mary A.
403. DE LEON, Alaya M.
404. DE LEON, Dennis Carlos Rogaciano C.
405. DE LEON, Dino Robert L.
406. DE LEON, John Paul V.
407. DE LEON, Katrina P.
408. DE LEON, Pantas M.
409. DE LOS REYES, Kristine Margaret R.
410. DE LOS REYES, Teodula B.
411. DE LOS SANTOS, Mary Grace G.
412. DE QUIROZ, Napoleon C.
413. DE VERA, Celeste A.
414. DE VERA, Marichelle DT.
415. DEE, Ma. Gemma M.
416. DEGAMO, Wilhelmo M.
417. DEGOLLADO, Ethel Marie G.
418. DEL CASTILLO, Anna Patricia R.
419. DEL ROSARIO, Aldrich C.
420. DEL ROSARIO, Julie Fe A.
421. DEL ROSARIO, Rowena A.
422. DELA CERNA, Orville T.
423. DELA CRUZ, Joan M.
424. DELA CRUZ, JR., Anastacio R.
425. DELA CRUZ, JR., Epifanio C.
426. DELA FUENTE, Abigail R.
427. DELA FUENTE, Juan Miguel Victor C.
428. DELA PAZ, Ronald Ray O.
429. DELA PEÑA, Jonalyn D.
430. DELA ROSA, Abigail R.
431. DELAMIDE, Adan T.
432. DELGADO, Wilma H.
433. DELGADO, JR., Enrico B.
434. DELIMA, Ma. Chat H.
435. DELLOSO, Prince Gil F.
436. DELORIA, Kim E.
437. DELOS SANTOS, Josefina Maria Procesa L.
438. DEPASUCAT, Reyna Faith B.
439. DEQUILLA, Christopher L.
440. DERLA, Brenda Y.
441. DESAMPARADO, Ma. Johanna P.
442. DESCALZO, Jose Ariel M.
443. DETICIO, Aileen Grace U.
444. DEVANADERA, Anna Noreen T.
445. DEYTO, Melinda D.
446. DIAZ, Noriel D.
447. DIAZ, Rei Alessandro L.
448. DIMACALI, Adrian P.
449. DIMAILIG, Maricris T.
450. DIMALIG, Ma. Wengel Lou S.
451. DINAMLING, Dick Mark D.
452. DINGAL, Ailene L.
453. DIONALDO, Junald S.
454. DIOSO, Armand B.
455. DIRIGE, Chelsea Segunda G.
456. DIVINAGRACIA, Lenore Angeline L.
458. DIVINO, Reichelle S.
459. DOMANTAY, Valerie Grace F.
460. DOMINGO, Andrix D.
461. DOMINGO, Osana Theresa D.
462. DOMINGO, Sherwin E.
463. DOMINGO, Tristan Dwight P.
464. DOMINGUEZ, Lovely P.
465. DONASCO, Edgar Alan A.
466. DORADO, Rilt Renart G.
467. DORIA, Marites Q.
468. DORIA, Richard Joseph C.
469. DOROMAL, Jose Joel P.
470. DUMAMA, Sha Elijah B.
471. DUMBAB, Harvey A.
472. DUMLAO, Jovian Jubert S.
473. DUMLAO, Melchor B.
474. DUMPILO, Eric Anthony A.
475. DUQUE, Gonzalito Nicolo E.
476. DURA, Blair M.
477. DY, Kristina Irene C.
478. DYBONGCO, Levi N.
479. DYCHIAO, Lorraine N.
480. EBILLO, Russel L.
481. ECHIVERRI, Juan Crisostomo M.
482. ECLAR, Clarence M.
483. EDDING, Jihan El R.
484. EDILLOR, Kathleen T.
485. EJES, Reynaldo R.
486. ELERIA, Elmer D.
487. ELIZALDE, Peter Bill C.
488. ELOPRE, Rojane C.
489. ELVEÑA, Christine Angelica B.
490. EMPINO, Arolf C.
491. ENTICA, Mellany V.
492. ERALDO-ARNUCO, Marcia Monina L.
493. ERNIE, Rachelle DG.
494. ESCUETA, III, Emilio D.
495. ESPAÑO, Mary Trish R.
496. ESPAÑOL, Diosdado C.
497. ESPAÑOL, Fritzzie Lyn F.
498. ESPEJO, Dhylyne Enchon B.
499. ESPERA, Woody John G.
500. ESPINOSA, Benjie G.
501. ESPINOSA, Maria Karla L.
502. ESPIRITU, Roel S.
503. ESTARES, Erwin P.
504. ESTAÑO, Heinjie B.
505. ESTILO, Chatru Anthony C.
506. ESTIMADA, Eric O.
507. EUGENIO, Christopher G.
508. EVANGELISTA, Ignacio F.
509. EVANGELISTA, Maria Ghia C.
510. EVANGELISTA, Ronald Brian G.
511. EXAMEN, Hannah D.
512. EXCONDE, Caroline G.
513. FABELLA, Caryl Kate S.
514. FABI, Joycery V.
515. FABILA, Eni Grace B.
516. FAJARDO, Ann Laurice A.
517. FAJARDO, Marlon G.
518. FAJARDO, Ria Divina I.
519. FALCULAN-MARI, Ma. Rowena D.
520. FAMA, Castelo Angelo T.
521. FANLO, Jaime Eduardo R.
522. FANLO, Mei Loraine C.
523. FANTONE, Ronald A.
524. FERNANDEZ, Francis A.
525. FERNANDEZ, Joselito D.
526. FERNANDEZ, Rommel P.
527. FERNANDEZ, Teodoro Lorenzo A.
528. FERNANDO, Janina Marie S.
529. FERRARIS, Wilt P.
530. FERRER, Dennis B.
531. FESALBON, Brenda Rhea F.
532. FESTEJO, Ryan Ed T.
533. FIANZA, Jinky Joar D.
534. FIDEL, Cyril C.
535. FIEL, Jasmin R.
536. FIGUEROA, Eddalaine M.
537. FLORA, Vanessa B.
538. FLORES, Arthur C.
539. FLORES, Chuchie L.
540. FLORES, Galerie Gee Y.
541. FLORES, Milette Socorro S.
542. FLORES, Sim C.
543. FLORES, Zargibran Adolben R.
544. FLORESE, Jose Frederick P.
545. FONTILLAS, Hyacinth T.
546. FORAYO, Christina P.
547. FORTUNO, Loretta Renie R.
548. FRANCISCO, Carlos Raphael N.
549. FRANCISCO, Kristine C.
550. FRANCO, Fatima Kristine J.
551. FUA, Marforth T.
552. GABALLO, Joyce B.
553. GABRIEL, Abegail C.
554. GABRIELES, Omar T.
555. GACUTNO, Jerry V.
556. GADRINAB, Fermin Nestor A.
558. GALA, Ana Siela M.
559. GALAURAN, John Michael S.
560. GALAY, Lani S.
561. GALLEROS, Cecille P.
562. GAMALINDA, Cheryl S.
563. GAMBONG, Lilyn D.
564. GAMONNAC, Florendo D.
565. GAN, Paula Katherina A.
566. GAN, III, Joaquin N.
567. GANALON, John Paul R.
568. GAPOL, JR., Flaviano T.
569. GAPOY, Lei Adrian V.
570. GARCES, Michael M.
571. GARCIA, Czarina B.
572. GARCIA, Jorge M.
573. GARCIA, Katherine Mari S.
574. GARGARITA, Claire Anne R.
575. GARIANDO, Ivy P.
577. GARLITOS, Kenneth Vincent J.
578. GARRIDO, Maria Cecilia M.
579. GATCHALIAN, Michal L.
580. GAYETA-ANDAYA, Catherine Joy S.
581. GAYON, Dorothy L.
582. GAYOSA, Tracy Ann M.
583. GEMENTIZA, Frederick A.
584. GENETIANO, Maureen R.
585. GENISE, Henida G.
586. GERADA, Jay P.
587. GERODIAS, Jillina M.
588. GERONA, Christian D.
589. GERONILLA, Beatriz O.
590. GERONIMO, Cesar C.
591. GERVASIO, Lianne Marie R.
592. GO, Aaron D.
593. GO, Angel Love M.
594. GO, Helene D.
595. GO, James G.
596. GO, Kirby C.
597. GO, Madonna Santa D.
598. GO, Maria Leonita Q.
599. GO, JR., Lito A.
600. GOC-ONG, Vanessa B.
601. GODINEZ, Christopher Lyndon N.
602. GOLLABA, JR., Gabriel L.
603. GOMEZ, Armeen Alain B.
604. GONZAGA, Johans S.
605. GONZAGA, Rosanne Juliana R.
606. GONZALES, Gerald S.
607. GONZALES, Sheryl V.
608. GONZALES, II, Marcelino R.
609. GRAGASIN, Manny V.
610. GRAN, Adriel B.
611. GRANDE, Alexander Francis C.
612. GUANZON, Woodro L.
613. GUARINO-RIVERA, Leila Magda N.
614. GUERRA, Ed Anthony F.
615. GUERRA, Reah B.
616. GUERRA-DE LA VEGA, Anna Marie Mae R.
617. GUICO, Maria Laarni Sheila S.
618. GUILING, Hosni L.
619. GUILLERMO, Virgin Rose Sharon P.
620. GUIMBATAN, Sandra M.
621. GUINA, Rene Andrew A.
622. GUIPO, Maria Primarisa C.
623. GUMPAL, Dante Gil D.
624. GUTIERREZ, Andrea L.
625. GUZMAN, Jacqueline A.
626. GUZMAN, Josefina A.
627. HAMCHAWAN, Judith B.
628. HERMOSISIMA, Honorato Carlo C.
629. HERNANDEZ, Cheryl A.
630. HERNANDEZ, JR., Celso J.
631. HERNANDO, Cherry Chiara L.
632. HERRERA, Georgia May L.
633. HIZON, Joaquin Miguel Z.
634. HORCA, III, Jesus Manuel A.
635. HORTIZ, Michelle L.
636. HUBAHIB, Mariano C.
637. HUMILDE, Philip N.
638. HURTADO, Ghia Chrystellyne O.
639. IBRAHIM, Ysnaira A.
640. ILAGAN, JR., Casiano A.
641. ILAO, Julan C.
642. ILARDE, Maila Katrina Y.
643. IMPERIAL, Dinah F.
644. IMPERIAL, Paul Rodulfo B.
645. INDAR, Rahma A.
646. INOTURAN, Florinda P.
647. INTERIOR, Enrico S.
648. JABAL, Joel J.
649. JABSON, Eugene Oliver M.
650. JACOB, Jamael A.
651. JACOBO-GRECIA, Nemia S.
652. JANDUSAY, Marie Bernadette M.
653. JAPZON, Maria Jeanette A.
654. JARANILLA, Cedric S.
655. JATICO-NUÑEZ, Janeth G.
656. JAUD, Myra Jennifer D.
657. JAUDINES, Sheryl C.
658. JAVIER, Z 19 S.
659. JOVEN, Emil Karlo L.
660. JUMALON, Joel Jonn U.
661. JURIAL, Niño Jim B.
662. JUSTINIANI, JR., Romeo S.
663. KANAPI, Roberto Ricardo O.
664. KUONG, Dennis C.
665. LABIAL, JR., Ricardo P.
666. LABOG, Norberto Pocholo P.
667. LABRADOR, Chaveli Joan O.
668. LABUSTRO-GARCIA, Jacquelyn A.
669. LACAMBRA, JR., Modesto C.
670. LAGAT, Eileen Mae B.
671. LAGMAN, Mary Rosary D.
672. LAGMAY, Aries John P.
673. LAIZ-DE VILLA, Ma. Theresa S.
674. LAM, Jennifer T.
675. LAMA, Michelle T.
676. LAMIGO, Richard L.
677. LAMPA, Rex D.
678. LANTION, Maria Camille G.
679. LAO, Dave Y.
680. LAO, Jewelle Y.
681. LAPPAY, JR., Gregorio A.
682. LAPUZ, Rosalie T.
683. LASAFIN, II, Adler Mari Eriberto L.
684. LASCANO, Jasper Alberto H.
685. LASTIMADO, Marvin P.
686. LAURE, Adonis A.
687. LAURE, Quijano S.
688. LAUREL, Marivic DL.
690. LEAGOGO, Adrianne Daniel L.
691. LEGARTO, Mary Ann C.
692. LEGASPI, Faith Henriet B.
693. LEONARDO, Melissa N.
694. LEPAIL, Jehan-jehan A.
695. LERO, John Paul Huey V.
696. LEYSON, Ian Peter A.
697. LIBARDO, Arlene Mae L.
698. LIBRADO, Leah A.
699. LIBUIT, Grace P.
700. LIDASAN, Jehan B.
701. LILAGAN, Jean P.
702. LIM, Anthony Lemuel T.
703. LIM, Antonio Paolo S.
704. LIM, Beatriz Paz Dominique D.
705. LIM, Dominadoranne I.
706. LIM, Edward Allan P.
707. LIM, Eileen D.
708. LIM, Frederick Charles Y.
709. LIM, Irene C.
710. LIM, Joanne M.
711. LIM, Lloyd Steven L.
712. LIM, JR., Menandro T.
713. LIMA, Cherry Joie B.
714. LIMBO, Charo C.
715. LINSANGAN, Jose A.
716. LIWAG, Monica T.
717. LIWALUG, Fatimah S.
718. LIZA-TORRES, Connie P.
719. LLARENA, Geoffrey H.
720. LLAVE, Lynda
721. LLAVE, Maria Isabel M.
722. LLENARES, Kathleen E.
723. LLIDO, Christian B.
724. LLOBRERA, Santy B.
725. LOAYON, Wildebrandt C.
726. LOBEDICA, Clyde Lelith S.
727. LOBERIO, Jonathan D.
728. LOBIANO, Maria Lourdes M.
729. LOBO, Numer P.
730. LOMAS-E, JR., Bonifacio Craig Y.
731. LONGALONG, Carol P.
732. LONTOC, Maureen DR.
733. LOPEZ, Erwin N.
734. LOPEZ, Gloria Monica S.
735. LOPEZ, Grace Marie
736. LOPEZ, Irish T.
737. LOPEZ, Jose Manuel A.
738. LOPEZ, Lea Mabel P.
739. LOPEZ, Lionel L.
740. LOPEZ, Maria Aurora Celestina M.
741. LOPEZ-BILAOEN, Nancy R.
742. LOPINGCO, Sharina Marie U.
743. LORENZANA, Gina L.
744. LORENZO, Jason T.
745. LU, Anna Victoria M.
746. LU, Sheila U.
747. LUI, Jonah Grace L.
748. LUMAGUI-SAYOTO, Marinela D.
749. LUMBATAN, Alexis M.
750. LUNA, Don Angelo S.
751. LUNA, Sandra A.
752. LUY, Ruby M.
753. MAALAT, Yvanna DL.
754. MAATA, Michael Oliver B.
755. MABANAG, Zeus R.
756. MABANGLO, Mildred Ann Q.
757. MABANSAG, Ivy B.
758. MABAZZA, Cristina A.
759. MABUTAS, Jesus Servando S.
760. MACAPAGAL, Richelle Joy P.
761. MACARAIG, Allan Reiz C.
762. MACARILAY, Florante C.
763. MADAMBA, Marvelous M.
764. MADAYAG, Irene Mae R.
765. MADULID, Lea T.
767. MAGBANUA, Pearl Sheila S.
768. MAGBANUA, JR., Manuel M.
769. MAGCAWAS, Allison T.
770. MAGNO-ZARATE, Citedina U.
771. MAGPANTAY, Anthea A.
772. MAGPANTAY-NG, Maricel M.
773. MAGRACIA, Herschel F.
774. MAGSINO, Carmi D.
775. MAGUAD, Zha-zha R.
776. MAHAMUD, John-christopher T.
777. MAILOM, Renniel C.
778. MALASA, Angelica O.
779. MALIAWAO, Anwar Khalid U.
780. MALLARI, II, Roberto P.
781. MANALABE, Grandis Rem T.
782. MANALANG, Kristina C.
783. MANALO, Jose Miguel S.
784. MANALO, Juan C.
785. MANANSALA, Edwin C.
786. MANCAO, Cecille B.
787. MANINGDING, Cadeiah B.
788. MANIS, Teliano L.
789. MANLOSA, Armi Lyn B.
790. MANLUYANG, Jeoffrey C.
791. MANUEL, Harlynne Monette M.
792. MANUEL, Olive Jane S.
793. MARASIGAN, Christopher Rey C.
794. MARCOS, Mary Jenneane R.
795. MARMOL, Fidelito L.
796. MARQUEZ, Edwin U.
797. MARQUEZ, Jal A.
798. MARRERO, Evelyn A.
799. MARTIN, Monica M.
800. MARTINEZ, Cherry M.
801. MARTINEZ, Janet L.
802. MARTIR, Karla May O.
803. MASANGKAY, Emmerly Jane D.
804. MATE, Michael Vincent A.
805. MATIBAG, Julius G.
806. MATILA, Rodelio S.
807. MAULION, Mischelle R.
808. MAXILOM, Marvin S.
809. MAXINO, Nancy A.
810. MAÑAGO, Sheryl M.
811. MEDIJA, Louela Lynne M.
812. MEJIA, Cecille L.
813. MEJIA, Maritess T.
815. MELITANTE, Christian George L.
816. MENDEZ, Geraldine C.
817. MENDINUETO, Erwin Edward P.
818. MENDOZA, Anna Charisse L.
819. MENDOZA, Kim Grace A.
820. MENDOZA, Marlon M.
821. MENDOZA, Mary Ann P.
822. MENDOZA, Mayette M.
823. MENDOZA, Perfecto Justino A.
824. MENESES, Geraldine S.
825. MERCADO, Daiza Anne O.
826. MERCADO, Erickson Donn R.
827. MERCADO, Katherine C.
828. MERCADO, JR., Wilfred A.
829. MERNADO, JR., Michael M.
830. MEÑEZ, Kristine Joy M.
831. MIANO, Diana Marie P.
832. MIGRIÑO, Jason R.
833. MILAN, Jurgens SJ.
834. MILLA, Patricia C.
835. MIOLE, Kristofferlean A.
836. MIRANDA, JR., Reinerio G.
837. MISOLA, Gladys V.
838. MITRA, JR., Elmer R.
839. MONDRAGON, Iannoel V.
840. MONGAYA, Anna Khristine C.
841. MONTEALEGRE, Theodore Allan M.
842. MONTEMAYOR, Adrian R.
843. MONTENEGRO, Allen L.
844. MONTERO, Osmond M.
845. MONTEZA, Angelica Diane B.
846. MORALES, Anthony Lawrence M.
847. MORALES, Cynthia Evangeline D.
848. MORALES, Eufel N.
849. MORALES, Giovanni R.
850. MORALES, Leilani C.
851. MORALES, Michelle Frances L.
852. MORANO, IV, Rene Cornelio R.
853. MORENO, JR., Oscar P.
854. MORENO, JR., Paulino H.
855. MUYCO, Mary Love P.
856. NABUA, John Paul PA.
857. NACIONALES, JR., Rafael D.
858. NAFIANOG, Roger L.
859. NAMBATAC, Dave U.
860. NANGKIL, Philip Ray L.
861. NAPARATE, Arsenia A.
862. NARAJOS, Patricia D.
863. NARANJO, Christine Marie L.
864. NARISMA, Juevanrey A.
865. NATANAUAN, Klarisa L.
866. NAVARRO, Tina B.
867. NEFALAR, Marissa Corazon T.
868. NEIS, Maebe T.
869. NEPOMUCENO, Roviel B.
870. NERY, Melanie Johanna C.
871. NGOCHUA, Patricia Cristina T.
872. NICOLAS, Arvil Philipp A.
873. NICOLAS, Donnaliza A.
874. NICOLAS, Jonathan C.
875. NORA, Paula Katrina L.
876. NOVERO, Brian DS.
877. NUESTRO, Glenn Michael P.
878. NUEVE, Theresa Genevieve C..
879. OBILLOS, Maria Yasmin M.
880. OBIÑA, Eve Jonapaula M.
881. OCAMPO, Robert V.
882. OCAMPO, Shierma F.
883. OCAÑADA-ALEGRE, Amelie O.
884. OCFEMIA, Emil M.
885. OLAÑO, Sheryl L.
886. OLINGAY, Stephen C.
887. OMADTO, JR., Arnold Ninoy P.
888. OMELIO, Princess Claudin C.
889. OMPAD, Julius T.
890. ONA, Mercedita L.
891. ONG, Jennifer T.
892. ORBITA, Janis Mahalia A.
893. ORCULLO, Sora Dereka T.
894. ORENCIA, Janice Rhea B.
895. ORENCIO, Leah May L.
896. OROPESA, Cyril C.
897. ORPILLA, Michelle O.
898. ORTEGA, Noel M.
899. OUANO, Ethelbert B.
900. PABALINAS, Michael D.
901. PABELLAN, Abouben Jade R.
902. PABIONA, Esther Joy P.
903. PABLO, Jessibel M.
904. PACASEM, Nurhani C.
905. PADATE, Faizal A.
906. PAGAYATAN, Alfred T.
907. PALAC, Lemuel G.
908. PALENCIA, JR., Chulo B.
909. PALILEO, Alena Gale H.
910. PALINES, Erwin B.
911. PALMA, Pilipinas C.
912. PAMINTUAN, Dennis Albert S.
913. PAMMIT, Mari Khris R.
914. PAMONAG, Noli Rey L.
915. PAMPOLINA, Jonathan T.
916. PANER, Linda Lucky Grace C.
917. PANES, Anfred P.
918. PANES, JR., Rolando D.
919. PANGANIBAN, Avigail E.
920. PANGILINAN, Beverly F.
921. PANHON, Raymond G.
922. PARADELA, Glenn Raymond O.
923. PARAISO, Renato A.
924. PARAS, Joannah A.
925. PARONG, Joel Joselito G.
926. PASATIEMPO, Herlyn L.
927. PASCO, Novern Irish A.
928. PASCUAL, Joshua F.
929. PASCUAL, Urvi B.
930. PASION, Paul Emerson M.
931. PASTOR, Noel R.
932. PATALINJUG, Liza Marie S.
933. PATCHO, Jerry B.
934. PAULINO, Carlo A.
935. PAULINO, Paulo A.
936. PAYUMO, Caroline C.
937. PAYUMO, Marie Joy M.
938. PAZ, A.j. Gerardo T.
939. PAÑALES, Rhyan M.
940. PERALTA, Ramses S.
941. PEREDO, Eldric Paul A.
942. PERERA, Jason Bader LL.
943. PEREZ, Lyndon Gabriel C.
944. PEREZ-FERRER, Ruby C.
945. PEÑAFLOR, Aldrin G.
946. PEÑARANDA, Jose Rommel A.
947. PEÑARANDA, Rhyna M.
948. PEÑAS, Stella J.
949. PICCIO, Agnes A.
950. PICIO, Jubal R.
951. PILAR, Joy B.
952. PINEDA, Marco K.
953. PINTOR, Arminda T.
954. PIZARRO, Edwin Joy L.
955. PIÑGA, Vibenditho J.
956. PLACIDO, Lady Liza R.
957. PLAZA, Gaudenis Felix E.
958. POJAS, Philip John L.
959. PONDEMIRA, Katrina B.
960. POPANES, Alex Alberto M.
961. POQUIZ, JR., Eduardo U.
962. PORMENTILLA, Jeland Omer L.
963. PORTOZA, Elyjean D.
964. PORTUGAL, Russel P.
965. POSADAS, John Philip A.
966. POSADAS, Raymond Charles N.
967. POTICANO, Joselita M.
968. PRADO, Reigel A.
969. PREZA, Irma R.
970. PRIELA, Diomer L.
971. PRIETO, Mark Anthony S.
972. PUA, Ian Dominic M.
973. PUEDA, Anna Liza S.
974. PUGEDA, Jordan Neil S.
975. PUJANES, Jay P.
976. PUNO, JR., Rogelio D.
977. PY, Ailyn S.
978. QUANICO, JR., Leonardo B.
979. QUINSAYAS, Prima Jesusa B.
980. QUINTO, Salvador Henry H.
981. QUIROS, Jolex M.
982. QUIROZ, Bernadette V.
983. RABANES, Antonita C.
984. RABANG, Luisa A.
985. RABE, Mark Pepito J.
986. RACHO, Gerald B.
987. RAFAEL, Hyacinth E.
988. RAGSAC, Arceli C.
989. RAMIREZ, Cecily Nerisse C.
990. RAMIREZ, Doris G.
991. RAMIREZ, Renato Oliver A.
992. RAMIREZ, JR., Alfredo O.
993. RAMOS, Beatrix I.
994. RAMOS, Carmen Grace S.
995. RAMOS, Janice Kristine R.
996. RAMOS, Lesalie M.
997. RAMOS, Liza Michelle E.
998. RAMOS, Rechie N.
999. RAMOS, Reezann Keith E.
1000. RAMOS, Ricardo Victor K.
1001. RAMOS, JR., Eduardo F.
1002. RANGGA, Gleenes Dave T.
1003. RAVAL, Jose Roy B.
1004. RAYA, Brando Ray P.
1005. RAYEL, Rosette R.
1006. RAÑESES, Lezelda M.
1007. REAS-POLISTICO, Rosemarie Ann A.
1008. REBUYON, Wilfredo C.
1009. RECOLIZADO, Ma. Nerissa S.
1010. REGALA, Amie T.
1011. REGALADO, Ma. Ruiza L.
1012. RENTUMA, Juneth A.
1013. REPASO, Jayson G.
1014. REPOL, Judy Alice U.
1015. REYES, Ajay Noreen DS.
1016. REYES, Amanda Regina G.
1017. REYES, Ellen C.
1018. REYES, John Albert T.
1019. REYES, Luz Victoria F.
1020. REYES, Maria Teresa V.
1021. REYES, Mary Ann L.
1022. REYES, Mylene R.
1023. REYES, Ronces Anne S.
1024. REYES, Wendy S.
1025. RIALUBIN, Arlyne I.
1026. RICO, Reywin M.
1027. RIEZA, Sylvia Patricia S.
1028. RIGOR, Maritess R.
1029. RIODIQUE, Karen Anne S.
1030. RIVERA, Alexander A.
1031. RIVERA, Alexander Paul T.
1032. RIVERA, Dante Y.
1033. RIVERA, Jonah P.
1034. RIVERA, Maria Concepcion E.
1035. ROBLES, Joan A.
1036. ROBLES, Margarette T.
1037. RODRIGUEZ, Albert Leonard C.
1038. RODRIGUEZ, Christopher A.
1039. RODRIGUEZ, Irish Mae V.
1040. ROJAS-QUIAMBAO, Merriam Fe G.
1041. ROJO, Rosemarie A.
1042. ROMERO, Rowena V.
1043. RONQUILLO, Victor John Paul H.
1044. ROSALES, May Ann R.
1045. ROSALES, Rosario L.
1046. ROSARIO, Enrico R.
1047. ROSAURO, Allan A.
1048. ROSELL, Collin N.
1049. ROXAS, Vernidia M.
1050. RUBAYA, Maria Salve C.
1051. RUBIN, Krissi Shaffina Twyla A.
1052. RUBIO, Maria Catherina G.
1053. RUCKENBROD, Janis Roselle S.
1054. RUIZ, Erwin G.
1055. SABADO, Susan Phoebe R.
1056. SABANGAN, Charina G.
1057. SABER, Raya Avariza V.
1058. SABITSANA, Clemens Angeli B.
1059. SABUNDAYO, Maria Lourdes A.
1060. SACABEN, Rico Leo R.
1061. SACEDON, Janice S.
1062. SACEDON, Oliver M.
1063. SADURAL, Emma Rhea B.
1064. SALAGAN, Decimary DC.
1065. SALATAN, Gideon C.
1066. SALDUA-CASTILLO, Cherry Vi M.
1067. SALEM, Sylvia Jean P.
1068. SALIBAD, JR., David S.
1069. SALINAS, Frances Shanelle G.
1070. SALINAS, Pierre Nikolai M.
1071. SALOMEO, Conrado A.
1072. SALVADOR, Noel N.
1073. SALVANERA, Christian Joyce P.
1074. SALVE, Lalaine P.
1075. SAMANIEGO, Windel Z.
1076. SAMERA, Maria Lovella C.
1077. SAMONTE, Erwin Jonas A.
1078. SAMPAGA, Steven M.
1079. SAMPANG, Darrell Enerico I.
1080. SAMPAYAN, Rexreginald T.
1081. SAMSON, Sean Blenn E.
1082. SAN JUAN, Ernesto C.
1083. SANCHEZ, Analiza D.
1084. SANCHEZ, Dionne Marie M.
1085. SANCHEZ, Donna May P.
1086. SANCHEZ, Yehlen D.
1087. SANDE, Stephanie P.
1088. SANDOVAL, Ronald C.
1089. SANGALANG, Marlene O.
1090. SANOY, Sharon Grace S.
1091. SANTIAGO, Dominador O.
1092. SANTIAGO, Gwen Manuel P.
1093. SANTOS, Agnes B.
1094. SANTOS, Angelo Niño B.
1095. SANTOS, Charlie O.
1096. SANTOS, Rhoesel Ammiel M.
1097. SAQUING, Christine C.
1098. SARCEDA, Ryan R.
1099. SARINAS, Karen Mae G.
1100. SARMIENTO, Jorge Franco S.
1101. SARMIENTO, Maria Robina C.
1102. SARMIENTO, III, Jes Gal B.
1103. SARMIENTO, III, Leonardo A.
1105. SAWIT, Clifton James F.
1106. SAY, Loma Linda A.
1107. SAYOG, Arnolita F.
1108. SAÑOSA, JR., Juanito L.
1109. SEBASTIAN, Mia Mary G.
1110. SEBASTIAN, Yolanda S.
1111. SEBIANO, Teresa G.
1112. SEMPRON, Josie C.
1113. SERON, Eugene S.
1114. SEVILLA, Anna Camille L.
1116. SIBUYAN, Brian Gale T.
1117. SICANGCO, Maria Cecilia T.
1118. SILLA, Merielle T.
1119. SILO, JR., Benjamin H.
1120. SIMTIM, JR., Eufemio A.
1121. SINGSON, Ma. Veronique R.
1122. SINGSON, Michael Thor C.
1123. SIOCO, Kyan John B.
1124. SIONGCO, Emmie-lou L.
1125. SIRON, Jennifer G.
1126. SISON, Aireen D.
1127. SISON, Emmeree C.
1128. SITES, Nilda V.
1129. SITOY, Leighna Katrina S.
1130. SOBREJUANITE, Roev Bryl T.
1131. SOJOR, Ryan T.
1132. SOLIS, Ceasar Anthony S.
1133. SOLIS, Edson S.
1134. SOLIS, III, Emmanuel B.
1135. SOLOMON, JR., Juan B.
1136. SONGCO, Amiel R.
1137. SOPEÑA, Joicel C.
1138. SORIANO, Jerrylee D.
1139. SORIANO, Omar A.
1140. SORIANO, Zeldania DT.
1141. SORILLA, Mark Anthony C.
1142. SORILLA, Mark Christer A.
1143. SORIÑO, Paul B.
1144. SOTTO, Rhine F.
1145. STA. CRUZ, Benedict S.
1146. STA. MARIA, Odessa T.
1148. SUAREZ, Dario O.
1149. SUAREZ, Juan Alfonso D.
1150. SUAZO, Alvin G.
1151. SUMEDCA, Rommel H.
1152. SUPERABLE, Clarissa M.
1153. SURELL, Ma. Excelsis R.
1154. SURIL, Ethel Rea G.
1155. SUYAT, Franklin L.
1156. SZE, Abigail T.
1157. TAACA, Baby Lyn B.
1158. TACIO, Swanerrie Sangshell C.
1159. TADENA, Rex A.
1160. TAGARDA, Luis Karlo R.
1161. TAGLE, Sharon D.
1162. TAMAYO, Kristine Jazz V.
1163. TAMAYO, Zulieca L.
1164. TAMBOL, Jonathan B.
1165. TAN, Janice Jade V.
1166. TAN, Ma. Cecilia S.
1167. TAN, Rose Macrina Q.
1168. TAN, Vivian S.
1169. TANDOG, Jonathan G.
1170. TANSINSIN, Arthur G.
1171. TAPIA, Judilyn H.
1172. TAVAS-TAN, Marichu G.
1173. TEH, Shergine C.
1174. TEJERO, Robert John M.
1175. TENG, Bavilyn C.
1176. TEOXON, Art R.
1177. TEVES, Eugene C.
1178. TEVES, Irene Joyce T.
1179. TEVES, Niña Rica R.
1180. TI, Marl Chester Y.
1181. TIANCO, Elizabeth Amelia V.
1182. TIBON, Rheia G.
1183. TIMBOL, Jennifer L.
1184. TIN, Jovy June E.
1185. TINGSON, Mary Genevieve F.
1186. TIUNAYAN, Rolan A.
1187. TIZON, Sheryl Ann D.
1188. TOGLE, Maria Inez C.
1189. TOKIAS, Joey G.
1190. TOLEDO, Hermie Jun S.
1191. TOLENTINO, Claudette C.
1192. TOLENTINO, Jose Mari F.
1193. TOLENTINO, Nadia Marie D.
1194. TOLENTINO, III, Avelino D.
1195. TOLETE, Gladys Pinky D.
1196. TOLIMAO, Sandy J.
1197. TOMAS, Eric M.
1198. TOMON, Edwin M.
1199. TOMOTORGO, Ricky P.
1200. TORBELA, Venus A.
1201. TORIBIO, Elmer G.
1202. TORRALBA, Mary Grace Y.
1203. TORREGOSA, Jonell M.
1204. TORRES, Gregorio C.
1205. TORRES, Jason C.
1206. TORRES-ELACION, Chares Marie R.
1207. TOTAÑES, Maria Guillermina G.
1208. TRADIO, Alexander J.
1209. TRINIDAD, Cheryll Ann R.
1210. TRINIDAD, Christine S.
1211. TSANG, Jocelyn T.
1212. TUAZON, Ford G.
1213. TUBIGON-BACANG, Jerefe D.
1214. TUMAMPOS, Iris P.
1215. TUMANENG, Felix Jasper DC.
1216. TUMANENG, Rochelle Marie A.
1217. TUMBALI, Mediatrix S.
1218. TUMULAK, Maria Rosario Consuelo S.
1219. TUNGPALAN, Cheryl Ann A.
1220. TUPAS, Charo N.
1221. TUPAS, Rexter C.
1222. TUPAS, III, Alejandro M.
1223. TURIANO, Gerard N.
1224. TUTICA-VALLES, Genevieve B.
1225. TY, JR., Alfredo B.
1226. UAL, Jasmine Anne M.
1227. UMADHAY, Apollo J.
1228. UTZURRUM, Joanna Ruth T.
1229. UY, Jonathan Herbert C.
1230. UY, Voltaire S.
1231. UYAN, Aguinnaya D.
1232. VALDEZ, Almira B.
1233. VALDEZ, Edgard E.
1234. VALDEZ, JR., Rodrigo C.
1235. VALENCIA, Ian Christian M.
1236. VALENZUELA, Cyrus Paul S.
1237. VALENZUELA, JR., Carmelo L.
1238. VALERA, Charmi Christine F.
1239. VALLECER, Jan Hendrik I.
1240. VALLESPIN, Alex O.
1241. VARGAS, Ananias Christian G.
1242. VASQUEZ, Zarina Marie M.
1243. VELANDREZ, Jehn Louie W.
1244. VELASCO, Tricia Nicole Q.
1245. VELICARIA, Anthony Raymond M.
1246. VELOSO, Christine Antoinette M.
1247. VENTURA, Charissimae Y.
1248. VERDE, Rico O.
1249. VERGARA, John Dave G.
1250. VICERA, Christopher G.
1251. VICTORIO, Fides C.
1252. VIDAD, Owen M.
1253. VILLA, Oliver E.
1254. VILLALUZ, Randy S.
1255. VILLANTE, JR., Romeo L.
1256. VILLANUEVA, Emily Kristine C.
1257. VILLANUEVA, Henry C.
1258. VILLANUEVA, Jeremiah V.
1259. VILLANUEVA, Lovelyn A.
1260. VILLANUEVA, Marcianelle C.
1261. VILLANUEVA, Yolanda Y.
1262. VILLANUEVA, JR., Carlo C.
1263. VILLARIN, Earl Charles N.
1264. VILLARUBIA, Roseller P.
1265. VILLARUEL, Anthea R.
1266. VILLASERAN, Joel N.
1267. VILLEROZ, Francis C.
1268. VILLORDON, Jose Jonathan R.
1269. VINLUAN, Amiel Ronald R.
1270. VISTA, Guyla A.
1271. WAHAWA, Leticia P.
1272. WONG, Maciel C.
1273. YAMBAO, Kenneth B.
1274. YAMBOT, Rodrigo Dante C.
1275. YANCHA, Dashell C.
1276. YAP, Jeffry Jude T.
1277. YAP, Norman Brian P.
1278. YAP, Phillip John F.
1279. YAP, Rafael Christopher L.
1280. YAP, Raymond B.
1281. YAPHA, Maria Honeylette P.
1282. YMBALLA, Ragem V.
1283. YU, Ma. Felina Constancia B.
1284. YUHAYCO, Babel U.
1285. YUMUL, Ily Grace T.
1286. ZABALA, Jocelyn C.
1287. ZARAGOZA, Charmian Wyanet S.
1288. ZOLETA, Mark D.
1289. ZUÑO, Froilan Yñigo B.

Tuesday, March 25, 2008

The Great Dissenters

In the case of Romulo Neri vs. Senate Committee On Accountability of Public Officers and Investigations, et. al. (G.R. No. 180643, 25 March 2008), six (6) members of the Supreme Court namely Chief Justice Puno and Justices Carpio, Azcuna, Carpio-Morales, Martinez and Ynares-Santiago ruled that the three questions that Neri had refused to answer in the Senate probe are not covered by executive privilege. I do admire these six gallant dissenters who ruled on the strength of their blind loyalty to the Constitution and firm reverence to the doctrines of separation of powers and checks and balances. The minority ruling in effect wanted to uphold and legitimize the constitutional power of the Senate to compel a witness who refuses to heed a subpoena and reject the Executive Department’s resistance to the Senate’s power of inquiry which is coextensive with the power to legislate.

I salute you, Your Honor!

Prayers For Prayerful Cory

In 1985 the reluctant Cory was convinced to run for president to unify the fragmented opposition. If she did not run for president, Marcos could have handily crushed the divided opposition in the 1986 snap presidential election namely Salvador Laurel (UNIDO), Aquilino Pimentel (PDP-Laban), Jovito Salonga (LP-Salonga Wing) and Eva Estrada Kalaw ( LP-Kalaw Wing) who were all hell-bent to run for president.

04 Feb 1986. Huge crowd of Cory Aquino supporters at the election campaign rally in Luneta Park.

The key to the EDSA revolution was the voice of Cory. If she did not run for president there would perhaps have been no EDSA. We would probably not have the freedom we are enjoying today.

We owe our democracy to Cory. At 76, Cory remains a moral and political force. A recent Pulse Asia survey revealed that Cory rated highest with a trust rating of 41% beating Erap, FVR and GMA. The Time magazine put her again in its cover in its 2006 anniversary issue as the leading hero of Asia’s 60-year history beating Gandhi, Aung San Suu Kyi, MacArthur, Dalai Lama, Mother Teresa and many more heroes of our time. She was also honored by prestigious foreign award-giving institutions for her continuing efforts to empower poor communities in the socio-economic sphere in collaboration with various sectors of society.

Tuesday, March 18, 2008

Rape of Male By Female - Is It Contemplated By R.A. 8353?

In the Bar Exams Forum, of which I am an active member, I posed the following potential bar question.

Luna, an ambrosial widowed landlady, was enamored with his boarder Michael, a good-looking 26-year old bar reviewee. Naked, Luna silently entered into the room of Michael who was asleep one rainy night. She took off the boxer short of Michael and started manipulating his genital. Meantime, Michael was dreaming of having sex with her favorite classmate. Feeling that Michael was getting an erection, Luna had his genital inserted into her vagina and eventually had carnal knowledge of him. Awaken, Michael shouted for help. Luna was charged with rape by sexual assault.

a) Was the charge proper?

b) What if Michael had a heart attack upon seeing Luna on the top of him and he eventually died? Was Luna liable for the death of Michael?

This question has turned into a lively discussion among the forum members, viz :

Lito Basilio (Law Student)

Let me try to offer an answer. This is both my observation and suggested answer rolled into one.

The reality that males are raped by females is not widely accepted. Some people view it as an impossible act - that a male can’t be sexually assaulted by a female - and others view it as sexually titillating. The existence of female perpetrators and male victims confronts many of our most firmly held notions about women, men, sexuality, power, and sexual assault. It challenges our very beliefs about what sex is.

The myth that men can’t be victimized particularly by women is firmly entrenched in our culture. Many men who dare acknowledge that they were sexually abused by women are cruelly laughed at and humiliated.

Most do not dare say a word about it for fear of feeling any more ashamed than they already feel. Many men who were raped by women feel deeply ashamed of themselves, their sexuality, and their gender.

However, rape perpetrated by women against minors and adults has long been recognized in foreign jurisdictions. There have been many cases in U.S. and African courts where women are convicted of raping men.

Under our jurisdiction, based on expanded definition of rape, rape may now be committed by a female who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 of RA 8353, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting any instrument or object into the anus or vagina of a female, or anus of a male.

If the law penalizes a female for the degrading and perverse act of inserting an instrument or object into the anus of a male, I can see no reason why a more degrading and perverse act of Luna would not be penalized.

I therefore posit that the facts above is within the purview of the expanded definition of rape. Luna was correctly and properly charged. He would be charged with a composite crime of rape with homicide if death of the victim resulted from the rape.

Dark Justice (Law Student)

im a freshman law student, so i hope you guys give me a little more slack

i have just one question: isn't it absurd that it is Luna who caused the insertion of Michael's penis into her vagina and yet she was charged with rape by sexual assault?

as what RA 8353 provides:

Rape is Committed -

2. By any person who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 hereof, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting his penis into another person's mouth or anal orifice, or any instrument or object into the genital or anal orifice of another person.

By way of simplification and emphasis, rape is committed by any PERSON (male of female) who, under any of the circumstances mentioned in paragraph 1 hereof (unconscious), shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting any instrument or object (a vagina may be construed as object) into the genital (penis) or anal orifice of another person (male or female)

inserting any instrument or object into the anal orifice i can imagine... but inserting an object or instrument into the penis?

based on the facts, nothing was inserted into the penis.. rather the penis was caused to be inserted into the vagina..

i see a problem in the interpretation of the said provision with regard to the application to the case at bar..

anyways, that's just my humble observation..

Lito Basilio

It really does appear absurd when you apply RA 8353 to the letter.

However, RA 8353 contemplates that a FEMALE commits a crime of rape by sexual assault against a FEMALE or MALE, to wit :

1) by inserting any instrument or object into the genital or anal orifice of a FEMALE.

2) by inserting any instrument or object into the anal orifice of a MALE.

My point is that if the law considers above number 2 as a crime of rape, why a FEMALE who had the penis of an unconscious MALE inserted into her vagina would not be regarded as a crime of rape? The latter act is much more perverse and degrading than a FEMALE’s act of inserting any instrument or object into the anal orifice of a MALE.

I believe the announced purpose of RA 8353 is to expand the definition of rape.

To exclude from the definition the act of Luna, whereas a FEMALE’s act of inserting any object or instrument into the anal orifice of a MALE is included, would be an unintelligible, capricious and arbitrary delimitation of what the law seeks to expand.

There’s no rhyme or reason in giving protection against the FEMALE’s insertion of an instrument or object into the anal orifice of a MALE and yet refusing such protection to a MALE when, without his consent, a FEMALE had his penis inserted into her vagina.

Atty. Fred Pamaos

Allow me to join the fray. As noted in the discussion, the act penalized is: (1) "inserting" the assailant's penis "into" the mouth or anal orifice of the victim; or (2) "inserting" an instrument/or object "into" the genital or anal orifice of the victim. The term "into" is defined as:

A preposition signifying to the inside of; within. It expresses entrance, or a passage from the outside of a thing to its interior, and follows verbs expressing motion." (Black's Law Dictionary, Sixth Ed., p. 822)

In other words, the law, as it currently stands, contemplates that the object (that goes inside an orifice) belongs to the assailant, while the orifice (into which something is inserted) belongs to the victim. In the illustration given above, the object that went inside belongs to the victim, while the orifice belongs to the assailant. It's not within the language of the law.

Lito Basilio

It looks like my advocacy is not gaining ground.

I can’t help but be impressed with Atty. Fred’s argument. But I’m not fully convinced, sir. I believe Luna’s perverse act is within the expanded definition of the crime of rape by sexual assault. My reasons are :

1. Rape is now a crime against persons, meaning the victim may either be a female or male. According to the express language of the law, the crime may now be committed by a female against a male which was not a case in crimes against chastity. The reclassification of the crime of rape now allows rape of male by a female.

2. It is not only the textual elements of the crime of rape by sexual assault that qualifies the felony. I am of the view that other wrongful acts analogous to or much more evil than any elements of the crime of rape by sexual assault have to be taken into account in order not to defeat the very purpose of the law – i.e. to expand the definition of the crime of rape.

Atty. Fred Pamaos

Lito, a good advocate defends his stand even if it momentarily loses ground. Anyway, I fully agree with the 1st paragraph of your statement. As to the second paragraph, criminal laws are strictly construed. If it was the intention of Congress to include acts similar to that of Luna, then it should have done so. Perhaps Sen. Kiko should have included that in his bill; he should have been spared from the biting comment of Macka.

Atty. Ces

my answers:

a) there was no rape. the law is clear. it should not be enlarged beyond its clear meaning.
the crime could possibly be act of lasciviousness.
b) yes. the crime would be (my guess) homicide thru acts of lasciviousness

Ultrasapien (Law Student)

my answer would be:

1. there was no rape by luna.

a woman can commit rape only when, through sexual assault, a woman inserts any instrument or object into the genital or anal orifice of another person. nothing was inserted into michael's genital or anal orifice. hence no rape.

2. yes luna is criminally liable. ( but i'm not sure for what crime)

first, criminal liability is incurred by any person committing a felony although the wrongful act done be different from that which he intended. this is par. 1 article 4 of the rpc. for this to be true, the wrongful act done must be at least a felony.

so, is the act of luna of inserting michael's penis into her vagina considered a felony? i think so. although the most appropriate i could think of is unjust vexation. it cannot be acts of lasciviousness be cause the same presupposes that there was no carnal knowledge. neither could it be seduction because michael is not a minor nor a feeble minded person.

the appropriate crime, i think, is homicide thru reckless inprudence

second, a felony is commited not only through dolo or CULPA.

third, the act of luna was the proximate cause of michael's death.

Atty. Ces

a woman can commit rape only when, through sexual assault, a woman inserts any instrument or object into the genital or anal orifice of another person. nothing was inserted into michael's genital or anal orifice. hence no rape. ]

is this the ONLY manner by which a woman can commit rape?
can she rape another woman?
Ultrasapien (Law Student)
to your question cesmc:

i'd say yes.

art. 266A no. 2 of the RPC says:

"rape is any person, by any of the circumstances mentioned in par. 1 hereof, shall commit an act of sexual assault by inserting his penis into another person's mouth or anal orifice....."

because of the phrase "shall insert his penis......" the person referred to here is a man because only a man has a penis. a woman has nothing to insert except for an object or instrument

to continue....."or any instrument or object, into the genital or anal orifice of another person"

the last mentioned refers to any person, man or woman. if a woman inserts an object into the genitals or anal orifice of another woman, i'd say there is rape.

a woman has nothing to insert except for an object or instrument. hence, the only way for a woman to commit rape is by inserting an object or instrument in to the genitals or anal orifice of another person.

Atty. Ces

a woman may also commit rape by indispensable participation, like when she holds down the victim while a man commits the actual rape

Atty. Raj

yea, in conspiring to commit rape, they all share equally in the count.

Joshu (Barrister)

Let me join the enlightening discussion, in fact the said principle as correctly pointed out by cesmc was promulgated by the SC in its ruling on People vs. Banzales March 20, 1987 G.R. L-63260, a portion of the decision is reproduced below:

xxx"The trial court correctly found Dialola a woman, equally culpable as a principal together with Banzales for the crime of rape. Appellants' combined actions easily induce the belief that everything had been prearranged between them in order that Banzales might carry out his bestial designs upon the victim. Dialola cooperated in the perpetration of the rape by Banzales by acts without which the crime could not have been consummated. She paved the way by luring the unsuspecting victim into a secluded wooded area, delivering her to Banzales and then covering the girl's mouth so that she could not summon for help. The criminal responsibility of Dialola has been established."xxxx

Elbert (Law Student)

my humble answer to this question is that.. i agree with fred in the sense that the crime committed was not rape by sexual assault. the crime committed, as i see the facts, is only acts of lasciviousness